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2015-Feb-2 - ms (joining an

John Hannah American football

John Hannah was born in Canton, Georgia, the son of an NFL player, Herbert (Herb) Hannah, an offensive lineman for the University of Alabama who played a year at tackle for the New York Giants in 1951.Hannah was raised in Albertville, Alabama, and excelled at football, wrestling and track at Baylor School in Chattanooga, Tennessee. He won an individual national championship in wrestling at the National chi flat iron website Prep Championship in 1967. His high school coach in football, wrestling and track was Luke Worsham, whom Hannah credited in his induction speech at the Pro Football Hall of Fame: "I want to talk to you about Major Luke Worsham who was my high school coach. He chi hair straighteners is the guy who really taught me and showed me what love was all about. During his tenure Hannah was part of an SEC championship winning team. He was named to the University of Alabama All Century Team and also to the Alabama 1970s All Decade team. During his time at Alabama he also participated in wrestling, the shot put, and the discus throw. Hannah was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1999. Bryant would later say that Hannah was the greatest lineman he ever coached.[3]Hannah joined the Patriots in 1973 as the 4th overall pick in the 1973 NFL Draft. He played his entire professional career in New England. While considered somewhat short by NFL standards, Hannah made up for this with great speed and quickness as well as powerful legs.[4] Hannah excelled as a pass protector, run blocker and as the pulling guard on sweeps.[5] Hannah's commitment level to football was very high and he expected the same from each of his teammates, sometimes becoming quite angry if he did not feel that they were complying.[6] Hannah started the first thirteen games of his rookie season of 1973 until a freak leg injury forced him to miss the final game of the year.[7] Along with tackle Leon Gray, the two formed what was generally considered the best guard/tackle tandem in the NFL during the mid to late 1970s.[8] Gray and Hannah also combined with tight end Russ Francis to form one of the strongest left side trios in the league. Hannah anchored the 1978 offensive line that set a still standing NFL record chi flat iron official website with 3,165 rushing yards.[9] Hannah missed only five games out of a possible 191 because of injuries during his career. He also missed the first three games of the 1977 season due to he and Gray both holding out because of contract disputes. The Patriots finished with a winning record seven times and had only three losing seasons during Hannah's thirteen year career. In 1985, Hannah helped guide the team to its first AFC title and Super Bowl appearance. Hannah retired from the NFL after playing in Super Bowl XX.Hannah was named All Pro 10 times (1976 1985) and All AFC 11 times (1974, 1976 1985). He was also selected to play in 9 Pro Bowls. He was voted the Seagram's Seven Crowns of Sports Offensive Lineman of the Year Award in both 1978 and 1980 and was the winner of the NFLPA Coca Cola Offensive Lineman of the Year Award (selected by a vote of NFL players) for four straight years (1978 81). He is also one of the few players to have been named to the NFL All Decade Team twice, as Hannah was selected to both the 1970s and 1980s All Decade Teams (joining an elite group of players who have achieved this including Walter Payton). Hannah was chi hair dryer also selected to the NFL 75th Anniversary All Time Team, being the 1 guard in the team.In 1991, he became the first Patriots player to be inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. He and Andre Tippett are the only members of the Hall of Fame to have spent their entire career with the Patriots. While concurrently serving as the city's youth development coordinator, Hannah led the Somerville team through one winless season. He left to become a special assistant coach at his alma mater, Baylor School in Chattanooga, Tennessee, in 2005. Charley Hannah played in the NFL from 1977 to 1988 for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and the Los Angeles Raiders. Charley was a member of the 1983 84 Super Bowl winning Raiders.

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2015-Feb-2 - haematopoietic cells,

do myeloma plasma cells compete for the HSC nichequest

The bone marrow microenvironment contains specific anatomical areas (termed niches) that are highly specialised for the development of certain blood cell types, for example HSCs. The HSC niche provides important cell interactions and signalling molecules that regulate HSC self renewal and differentiation processes. These same signals and interactions are also important in the progression of haematological malignancies, such as multiple myeloma (MM). These cells, and others, represent a microenvironment that is conducive to the growth and development of HSCs. The cellular composition of the HSC and signals that contribute to HSC cellular quiescence, maintenance, mobilisation, homing and differentiation have been areas of intense investigation in recent years.4

The original concept of a haematopoietic niche (as described above) was proposed by Schofield et al.,5 who observed that HSC growth was not supported in the spleen in the same manner as in the bone marrow. Indeed, it is now evident that in adult humans, normal haematopoiesis is restricted to the bone marrow. This concept has since been further developed, and it is now widely accepted that specific anatomical regions within the bone marrow comprise specialised niches for HSC development and normal blood cell production.

The HSC niche has diverse functionality, with significant interplay between signalling pathways allowing for the maintenance of a quiescent population of primitive HSC within the bone marrow, as well as subsequent HSC development and differentiation. Anatomically, there are two key HSC niches within the bone marrow; the endosteal niche, located adjacent to the bone surface,6, 7 and the perivascular niche, located centrally within the bone marrow proximal to blood vessels.8 The endosteal niche is reported to be the primary location of quiescent HSCs, while the perivascular niche supports HSC mobilisation and differentiation.9, 10 HSCs isolated from the endosteal region of the bone marrow exhibit a higher self renewal capacity than those from centralised (that is, perivascular) regions,11 indicating that endosteal HSCs are primarily involved in the self renewal axis of HSC maintenance.

During HSC development, primitive HSCs are mobilised into the circulation and later re enter the bone marrow space process commonly called homing.12, 13 The endosteal surface of the bone is frequently identified as the region to which HSC homing and engraftment is directed. However, recent studies have identified stromal cells Wholesale Jerseys located within the perivascular niche as important for HSC homing and maintenance in the adult mouse.14, 15, 16, 17 The discrepancies in these findings suggest that the precise location of HSCs during various stages of Cheap NFL Jerseys Wholesale their developmental cycle is still an area of some controversy.

The cellular composition of the HSC niche, specifically cells of the mesenchymal lineage, and the roles they have in modulating HSC development has been an area of intense research in recent years. Greater understanding of the signalling processes and interactions that occur within and between these cell populations will enable us to better define changes and adaptations within the microenvironment that allow for neoplastic cell growth (discussed below).

Top of pageHSC Niches and DiseaseIt has been suggested that specialised HSC niches are also involved in the development and progression of haematological malignancies. The extent of the reliance of these tumours on the microenvironment appears to be dependent upon the type and stage of malignancy. At one extreme is a neoplastic growth that is dependent on dysregulated cell interactions and signalling pathways within the microenvironment. At the other end of the spectrum are malignancies that exhibit an absolute dependence on normal microenvironmental cues for disease progression, such as the expression of specific cytokines and growth factors.18 Of the latter type of malignancy, multiple myeloma (MM) provides an ideal model to investigate the HSC bone marrow niche and to further define the mechanisms whereby B cell neoplasms are able to utilise and potentially alter the normal HSC niche to provide a microenvironment conducive to neoplastic cell growth.

MM is a haematological malignancy that is characterised by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells within the bone marrow. Clinical manifestations of the disease include osteolytic bone lesions, hypercalcaemia, suppressed haematopoietic function and increased angiogenesis within the bone marrow. It is now widely accepted that most, if not all, MM is preceded by a premalignant disease known as monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS).19 MGUS is characterised by the abnormal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, while the patients remain asymptomatic.20 The signals that lead to the initiation of excessive plasma cell proliferation are, therefore, present within the bone marrow microenvironment before the onset of overt MM. The transition of MGUS to MM requires further changes to the stromal compartment, which enhances myeloma cell growth and survival.

A number of pathways and cell types have been shown to affect the behaviour of both HSCs in normal haematopoiesis and the malignant myeloma plasma cells. It is through these regulated interactions with cell Nike NFL Jerseys Cheap populations and signalling pathways within the bone marrow microenvironment that myeloma cells are believed to the normal hematopoietic niche to aid the extensive growth and proliferation of tumour cells18, 21 (see Figure 1). Representative signalling molecules and their role in bone marrow stromal cell interactions with (a) HSC, (b) normal plasma cells or (c) myeloma plasma cells.

Full figure and legend (213K)

Top of pageB cell development and plasma cellsHSCs develop into a range of haematopoietic cell lineages, dependent on combinations of signals from the bone marrow stromal environment. B cells develop within a niche rich in cells of the osteoblastic and mesenchymal lineage. These cells express a range of factors required for the stimulation of B cell survival and proliferation, including CXCL12, Flt 3 ligand, interleukin (IL) 7, integrins, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM 1) and N cadherin.22 Immature B cells migrate to secondary lymphoid organs where they are activated by exposure to antigen and subsequently differentiate into plasma cells and memory B cells.23, 24, 25 These end stage plasma cells have been shown to return to and colonise the bone marrow in specific niches adjacent to cells highly expressing CXCL12.26

CXCL12 was initially characterised as a pre B cell growth factor and its interaction with its receptor (CXCR4) has been shown to be absolutely required for B cell development.27, 28, 29, 30 Interestingly, the differentiation of B cells towards the terminally differentiated plasma cell stage enhances the cells sensitivity to CXCL12, which is most likely due to the high expression of CXCR4 on plasma cells.23, 31, 32 This increased sensitivity supports observations that mature plasma cells home to the bone marrow where stromal cells express high levels of CXCL12.

In addition, IL 6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) has been widely demonstrated to be required for haematopoiesis33, 34, 35 and more specifically to stimulate the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells, support plasma cell growth and protect plasma cells from apoptosis.36, 37, 38, 39

Top of pageBMSC and MM dependent relationshipNormal plasma cells are dependent on specific signals from BMSCs to regulate their differentiation, growth and localisation. These same signals are required for myeloma cell growth and survival, supporting the notion that the bone marrow provides a permissive environment for disease development (see Figure 1). A number of studies confirm the reliance of myeloma cells on interaction with the bone marrow stroma. The successful in vitro growth of murine derived primary plasmacytomas demonstrated a reliance on stromal cell adhesion.40 Similarly, direct contact between BMSCs and myeloma cells is required to protect myeloma cells from drug induced apoptosis,41, 42, 43 while a more recent study has identified an absolute reliance on the presence of BMSCs for the implantation and development of myeloma disease in mice.44 These cell interactions have been demonstrated to induce the secretion of soluble factors by stromal cells, including IL 6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which mediate survival and proliferative pathways.41, 45, 46 These studies establish the importance of interactions between myeloma cells and BMSCs for growth and survival of the malignant plasma cells. In addition, a recent report has suggested that the cellular source of a cytokine may result in a differential response to that cytokine.14 Therefore, the identification of which stromal cells that is (endothelial cells, osteoblasts or MSCs), secrete these factors may also be advantageous in determining the role these stromal cell cell interactions and soluble factors have in mediating MM initiation and progression. It is evident that the presence of myeloma cells in the bone marrow modulates the expression of cytokines from stromal cells, which enhances their ability to modify the microenvironment to support malignant growth.

Top of pageHypoxia ideal condition for MM plasma cell growthThe bone marrow is defined as a hypoxic space with low oxygen tension. The vascularisation observed in MM is largely due to the formation of microvessels within the hypoxic bone marrow environment, which is sufficient to increase the oxygen tension in the bone marrow and stimulate continued MM tumour growth (reviewed by Martin et al50). Using the 5TMM mouse model of myeloma disease, Asosingh et al.,51 showed that myeloma plasma cell infiltration into the bone marrow was associated with a decrease in hypoxia, relative to the control. In addition, we have previously shown that the hypoxia inducible factor, hypoxia inducible factor 2 is aberrantly expressed by CD138 MM plasma cells, resulting in enhanced angiogenesis.52 Together, these data infer that although MM initiation occurs in the hypoxic bone marrow environment, angiogenesis is subsequently stimulated and is required for continued MM tumour growth.

Top of pageCXCL12 role in HSC development and MMIn addition to being required for B cell differentiation in the bone marrow, the CXCL12 axis is an important mechanism for the control of HSC homing and maintenance within the bone marrow, with high expression of CXCL12 acting as a chemoattractant for both primitive hematopoietic cells and mature, differentiated plasma cells.26, 53 HSCs are commonly located in close proximity to high expressers of CXCL1216, 17 and CXCL12 expression is required for colonisation of the bone marrow by hematopoietic progenitors during mouse embryogenesis.54 In addition, treatment with the potent CXCR4 receptor antagonist AMD3100 or suppression of CXCL12 expression results in mobilisation of HSCs from the bone marrow.55, 56, 57 Furthermore, forced mobilisation of HSC through treatment with granulocyte colony stimulating factor results in decreased levels of CXCL12 specifically within the bone marrow and inactivation of surface CXCR4.58, 59

The role of Wholesale Nike Jerseys CXCL12 in HSC maintenance also goes beyond its role as a chemoattractant for specific homing to the bone marrow niche, with addition of CXCL12 into culture inhibiting cell cycle entry of primitive HSCs. Conversely, inhibition of CXCR4 results in excessive proliferation of HSCs,60 suggesting that CXCL12 signalling is also involved in maintaining the HSC quiescent Cheap Snapback Hats state.

Similar to HSC, the homing of myeloma Cheap Snapbacks cells is responsive to signalling through the CXCL12 axis. Increased CXCL12 expression resulted in enhanced motility, while inhibition of CXCR4 blocked the directional homing of myeloma cells in vitro and in vivo and was concurrently found to be associated with decreased tumour burden.61, 62 The role for CXCL12 in myeloma cell homing is supported by the observation that mobilisation of myeloma cells resulted in decreased surface expression and circulating levels of CXCR4 and CXCL12, respectively.63 Bone marrow endothelial cells isolated from MM patients also express higher levels of CXCL12, at both the mRNA and protein level, compared with those derived from healthy donors and this was shown to stimulate myeloma cell proliferation, which is in direct contrast to the effect of CXCL12 on inhibiting cell cycle entry of HSCs.60, 64 In addition, we have previously shown that myeloma cells also express CXCL12, resulting in high circulating levels in the peripheral blood of MM patients.65, 66 As CXCL12 acts as a chemoattractant and CXCR4 is known to be highly expressed on plasma cells, it is plausible that a CXCL12 paracrine signalling system between adjacent plasma cells may be involved in the development of plasmacytomas.

Top of pageIL 6 B cell growth factor during haematopoiesis and MM developmentIL 6 is required for the differentiation and maintenance of plasma Cheap Hats cells in the bone marrow (discussed above) and is also required for the growth and survival of myeloma cells. Initially, myeloma cells were shown to secrete IL 6, with their in vitro growth dependent on an intact IL 6 signalling pathway.67 Increased levels of IL 6 were also identified in the bone marrow of patients Cheap Jerseys From China with MM,68 suggesting that myeloma cell growth is supported by cells within the bone marrow microenvironment through the production of IL 6. Indeed, more recently, myeloma cells were shown to stimulate increased expression Cheap NFL Jerseys of IL 6 by MSCs within the bone microenvironment, while adhesion of myeloma cell lines to BMSC also stimulates expression of IL 6 from the stromal cells.46, 69, 70

The question remains whether an increase in IL 6 expression is sufficient to mediate a neoplastic change in plasma cell growth or whether it functions in concert with other signals to further compound malignant growth. IL 6 levels are tightly regulated and are generally maintained at low levels, although IL 6 is upregulated during inflammatory responses. Serum levels of IL 6 have been demonstrated to be increased in mice and humans with advanced age, which is associated with chronic inflammatory disorders.71, 72 Oestrogen deficiency, such as that observed in post menopausal women, is linked with an increase in IL 6 production associated with increased osteoclast activity and bone resorption.73, 74 Similar effects have also been noted in androgen deficiency, however the inhibitory effect of androgens on IL 6 expression is less than that observed with oestrogen.75 This would explain the changes in IL 6 secretion with advancing age and pose a potential mechanism through which increased IL 6 signalling may mediate MM growth and development. However, there remains a chicken and the egg scenario, in which it is unclear whether increased IL 6 signalling with age is sufficient to allow progression of MM disease, or whether the onset of MM is an independent event resulting in an increase in IL 6 signalling within the bone marrow.

Top of pageAdhesion late antigen 4 and VCAM 1The expression of a number of adhesion molecules by HSC is required for their specific homing and maintenance within the bone marrow. VLA 4 (also known as integrin) has been shown to retain HSC within the bone marrow,63, 76 through binding to VCAM 1, which is expressed within the bone marrow by both endothelial cells and osteoblasts.77, 78 Mobilisation of HSC with granulocyte colony stimulating factor results in decreased VLA 4 expression and cleavage of VCAM 1, while direct antagonism of VLA 4 though the small molecule inhibitor BIO5192 is sufficient to mediate mobilisation.79, 80, 81 These findings highlight the importance of this mechanism of adhesion in HSC maintenance within the bone marrow.

VLA 4 is also a major contributor to plasma cell interactions with the extracellular matrix and BMSC due to its predominant expression on the plasma cell surface.31, 82 BMSC derived from patients with MM have been shown to exhibit higher expression of VCAM 1 compared with those from healthy donors which, in combination with the high levels of VLA 4 expressed by myeloma cells, mediates a preferential interaction between myeloma cells and stromal cells.41, 83 These myeloma cell cell interactions allow the malignant cells to inhabit the same environment within the bone marrow normally utilised by HSC for their maintenance and development. The adhesion between myeloma cells and the bone marrow stroma is critical for myeloma development, as targeting of VLA 4 with a monoclonal antibody after the establishment of disease in a myeloma mouse model results in decreased tumour cell burden.84 The expression of VLA 4 on primitive haematopoietic cells, mature plasma cells and myeloma cells highlights a potentially important similarity between HSC and malignant plasma cells, which may lead to the presence of excessive myeloma cells within the bone marrow at the expense of normal HSC development. Indeed, this pathway was seen to be upregulated in 40 of MM cases and associated with increased angiogenesis and poor prognosis.85 Furthermore, studies from our laboratory have shown levels of CXCL12 in peripheral blood of MM and MGUS patients to positively correlate with the degree of bone marrow angiogenesis, which was associated with increased hypoxia inducible factor 2 expression by MM plasma cells.52, 65

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2015-Feb-2 - en why increa

alcohol limit for drivers 21 and under

"My hope is that this legislation will contribute to a reality where adults in the future will not drink and drive at all," Transportation Minister Kathleen Wynne said at a news conference Monday.

In 2008 the Ontario government backed off from a larger set of proposed restrictions on young drivers, including a change that would have limited the number of teen passengers in a teen driven car, after a Facebook campaign stirred public outrage.

The tough on youth driving legislation was strongly encouraged by Tim Mulcahy, whose son Tyler was killed in a July 2008 car crash after he and friends spent the afternoon eating and drinking at a restaurant in Port Carling.

Tyler and two of his friends died when his Audi veered into a river. His girlfriend Nastasia Inez Elzinga, then 19, survived after she managed to swim to shore. Tyler, 20, was in danger of losing his driver's licence for several traffic charges at the time.

After his son was killed, Mulcahy took out full page newspaper ads urging Premier Dalton McGuinty to tighten rules for young drivers.

Many say his personal crusade was instrumental in getting the zero tolerance legislation. Reached on holiday, Mulcahy said he didn't want to comment on the changes for personal reasons.

Statistics show people aged 19 to 21 are nearly 1.5 times more likely than older drivers to be involved in fatal crashes and injuries as a result of drinking and driving.

Under the legislation, drivers 21 and under found to have alcohol in their systems will face an immediate 24 hour licence suspension at roadside, a fine of up to $500 and a 30 cheap jerseys day licence suspension.

New drivers of all ages will also be subject to zero tolerance until they get their G2 licence, which can take upwards of two years to acquire.

"There will be people that are unhappy with this, including some people in my own household, but we know this is the right legislation," said Andrew Murie, chief executive officer of Mothers Against Drunk Driving.

He said he expects the new wholesale jerseys rules will result in a 15 to 25 per cent decrease in impaired driving deaths of young people.

Ontario is the fourth province to implement zero tolerance legislation for young and new wholesale nfl jerseys drivers, after Manitoba, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

Some say the changes unfairly target young people.

"We believe that all drivers in the G1, G2, M1 and M2 class of licence should face the same sanctions regardless of age," Ontario Safety League president Brian Patterson said. "It's a step forward and it's going to save lives, [but] at the end of the day I think it should apply to everyone."

That sentiment was echoed by young drivers at the Advanced Motoring Bureau driving school at Danforth and Broadview Aves. "I think they should keep an eye on people older than 21, too," said Joe Zambri, 18.

Classmate Jon Bentley, 16, agreed drinking and driving isn't a big problem among his peer group. "If the legal drinking age is 19, then why increase this to 21?"

The cheap nfl jerseys changes also include a measure the ministry hopes will alter the behaviour of first time drunk driving offenders.

Under current laws, a person convicted of impaired driving must serve a driver's licence suspension of at least a year. However, research has shown that many drivers with a suspended licence continue to drive. Under the new law, first time offenders will be eligible for a reduced suspension if they agree to an ignition interlock installed in their vehicle. The device is a breathalyzer attached to the vehicle's dashboard that prevents the person from driving unless they blow under a set limit. Offenders must pay for the lock themselves.

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2015-Feb-2 - expected snowfall

Springfield Latest News

Tuesday, Dec. 17, 2013

Snowfall is done as warm, rainy trend beginsTonight's snowfall, which has left a coating in spots, appears to be over, Storm Center 7 Chief Meteorologist Jamie Simpson said, but it'll be cold enough to refreeze some isolated areas overnight. There will be a good christian louboutin shoes replica deal of sun Wednesday, but most of the sun's energy will be reflected . Tuesday, Dec. Tuesday, Dec. Tuesday, Dec. Tuesday, Dec. Tuesday, Dec. 17, 2013

Municipal cheap red bottoms CourtCASES CALLED MONDAY INCLUDED:Bryan Q. Artis, 24, of 2538 Red Coach Dr., Apt. Tuesday, Dec. 17, 2013

Anonymous donation covers layaway accounts againA man who anonymously donated $25,000 to pay off layaway accounts at the Walmart here for the second year in a row is creating a ripple effect of giving in the community this holiday season. wasn our money to begin with, so why not pay it forward? Kim Summers . Tuesday, Dec. Tuesday, Dec. 17, 2013

8 year sentence for man who sold teen gunThe man who sold a 17 year old a pistol with which he accidentally shot himself moments later has been sentenced to 8 years in prison for louboutin shoes replica involuntary manslaughter and improperly furnishing a firearm to a minor. Brian Hill, 26 of Springfield, faced a maximum sentence of 11 years, but prosecutors said . Tuesday, Dec. 17, 2013

Some areas could see snow this afternoonSnow will be back this afternoon after a dry day Tuesday. Skies will be cloudy and dry through the daytime hours with highs near 30, said Meteorologist Rich Wirdzek. Snow showers will move back into the area after sunset from the northwest. red bottom shoes "Select areas may see a quick dusting or . Tuesday, Dec. 17, 2013

Holiday shoppers not stopped by weatherDespite the shorter holiday season, retailers still are on track to meet the National Retail Federation holiday sales forecast of 3.9 percent growth to $602.1 billion, officials said. The federation anticipated a surge in holiday shoppers heading into this past weekend, and southwest Ohio retail centers were packed despite another .

Snowfall tonight won amount to muchUPDATE: Tonight's expected snowfall has ended and very little fell in the Dayton area while about an inch or a little more fell in locations far north of the city, with the highest reported snowfall measuring 1.8 inches in northeast Logan County, Storm Center 7 Chief Meteorologist Jamie Simpson said. .

Families get gifts with NFL player Brandon McKinneyEighteen local families went Christmas shopping tonight because of the generosity of BJ Kids 91 Foundation and its founder, Brandon McKinney, NFL defensive lineman and 2001 Chaminade Julienne High School graduate. McKinney bought gift cards for the families and was on hand Monday night at Trotwood's Target on Shiloh Springs .

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2015-Feb-2 - o own" in a spe

Where are Exotic Pets Legal

Where in the United States are exotic pets legal? This question would make more sense if it read "what exotic pets are legal to own" in a specified state. People's definitions of an exotic animal vary. Cheap Michael Kors Outlet The media generally uses the word 'exotic' to describe pets that people fear such as big cats, large snakes and wolves (even though these canines were once native to more states).

Exotics are generally any animal other than a Cheap Michael Kors dog or cat, and often this doesn't include farm animals, and common 'pocket' pets such as guinea pigs, rabbits, and small rodents like hamsters. Small reptiles are exotic pets, but they are rarely banned. Parrot species are another species of exotic that rarely face bans. There are exceptions to these rules of course. Some animals are only 'legal' if Replica Sunglasses you can meet certain requirements, be eligible for a USDA license, or are using the animal for specific, non pet purposes (commercial, exhibition, sanctuary, educational). This article will address animals that are legal for private ownership, or with criteria that an average citizen can meet.

Exotic pet bansExotic pets are often misjudged, misunderstood, and misinformation is abundant.

Most exotic pets are illegal in California, and Hawaii has the strictest pet regulations because island ecosystems are the most prone to invasive species (ironically, one of their most prominent invasive species, the domesticated cat, is one of the few pets you can own there).

New York City is famous for its absurd pet restrictions among exotic pet enthusiasts. Common animals in the pet trade such as ball pythons, ferrets, and tarantulas are banned, but still kept illegally by its citizens.

This list is provided as a general guide, and for public interest. It should not be taken as a definitive document that verifies the legality of animals one is seeking to keep. Always check with your state, county, town, ect. to confirm if an exotic animal is legal for private possession. This list was last updated June, 2013.

Animals taken and killed, read the results of one state's poorly defined exotic pet laws.

This woman had 13 of her legally owned exotic animals stolen by the PGC.

Carnivora Animals in this category that are sometimes kept as pets include, but are not limited to:

Big Cats (tigers, mountain lions, lions, cheetahs, leopards

Bears (black bears,sun bears, brown bears)

Canines (fennec fox, red fox, silver fox, wolves, wolf hybrids)Medium and small cats (servals, caracals, bobcat, Asian leopard cat, hybrids)Viverrids (genets, binterongs, asian palm civets)

If your state has a ban or requires a permit for animals in the order 'carnivora' then all of these animals (excluding whatever listed exceptions) are not legal.

Cheetahs are rare in the United States and are not kept as 'pets'. They are also not really big cats and are nowhere near as dangerous.

Most of these animals are illegal in man states.

Some notable statesHawaii has the most restrictive pet laws. Almost all animals other than cats and dogs are illegal and any pet entering the state must be quarantined

Nevada has the loosest Cheap Replica Sunglasses exotic pet laws, where some animals such as tigers, non human primates, elephants, and wolves are legal to own without a permit. However, alligators, crocodiles, coyotes, foxes, raccoons are not legal to own in the state.

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2015-Feb-2 - logo, NHL Mo

NHL Central Scouting's preliminary Futures List of North American players

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